(By Craig Mcmillan) When is corruption something else instead? In the computer world, it is one of the unwritten “rules of the road” that doing the same thing over again and expecting a different result is the definition of insanity. The reason is simple. Computers at the hardware level are presumed to be functioning correctly, unless their diagnostic routines tell you otherwise.

As we ascend upward from the base of hardware, each level becomes less reliable than the previous. Thus firmware, the software encoded into the hardware, is less reliable than hardware combined with diagnostics. Operating systems, which rest upon the firmware and hardware, are less reliable than firmware. And the programs that users run on computers are the least reliable and, therefore, most prone to error. We can look at the American election system in much the same way. Presidential elections are mandated in the U.S. Constitution (originally Article II, Section I; more recently by the 12th Amendment). READ MORE