China is reinforcing its censorship of the internet with a campaign to crack down on unauthorized connections, including virtual private network (VPN) services, that allow users to bypass restrictions known as the Great Firewall. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology said in a notice on its website on Sunday that it is launching a nationwide clean-up

campaign aimed at internet service provider (ISP), internet data centrer (IDC), and content delivery network (CDN) companies. It ordered checks for companies operating without government licenses or beyond the scope of licenses. The ministry said it was forbidden to create or rent communication channels, including VPNs, without governmental approval, to run cross-border operations. READ MORE