Countries across the world will tighten security ahead of major cultural and sports events after a suicide bombing in Britain that killed at least 22 people, but experts say reinforced measures will do little to prevent determined individuals. Given the target being a Manchester pop concert, the latest attack to hit Europe had echoes of the coordinated attacks in November 2015 by Islamist militants on the Bataclan concert hall and France’s national soccer stadium that killed 130 people.

Since those attacks, France has been in a state of emergency and seen thousands of soldiers patrolling its streets alongside police to protect tourist sites, government buildings and events. That has not stopped a raft of attacks in the country, such as the truck attack in Nice on Bastille Day last July, by “lone-wolf” assailants who did not use a network of fellow militants — all lessening the risk of alerting security agencies.  READ MORE